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A course in electrical power by JB Gupta

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A course in electrical power by JB Gupta

Book Name – A course in electrical power by JB Gupta
Author – J B Gupta
Publisher – Katson Books

Edition – 2013
Language – English

Paperback – 1650 Pages

A course in electrical power by JB Gupta is one of the reference textbooks for electrical students for electrical power systems. It covers all important topics of electrical power.

Book Contents

VOLUME- 1 : Power System

Part – 1 : Generation and economic considerations

1. INTRODUCTORY

1.1. Importance of electrical energy
1.2. Superiority of electrical energy
1.3. Generation of electrical energy
1.4. Source of energy
1.5. Comparison of source of energy
1.6. Source of energy in India
1.7. Growth of power systems in India
1.8. Power crisis in India
1.9. Future trends
1.10. Private sector in energy management and captive power plants
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers

2. HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

2.1. Introduction
2.2. Merits an demerits of hydroelectric power plants
2.3. Selection of site for hydroelectric power plants
2.4. Hydrology
2.5. Schematic arrangement power plants
2.6. Elements of hydroelectric power plants
2.7. Classification of hydroelectric power plants
2.8. Water turbines
2.9. Governing of water turbines
2.10. Selection of water turbines
2.11. Underground hydro power plant
2.12. Small hydroelectric power plants
2.13. Pumped storage power plants
2.14. Hydro potential in India
2.15. Automatic and remote control of hydro plants
2.16. Hydroelectric generator
2.17. Choice of size and number of generating units
2.18. Plan layout of hydro power plant
2.19. Hydro plant auxiliaries
2.20. Environmental impacts of hydro power plants
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

3. STEAM POWER PLANTS

3.1. Introduction
3.2. Efficiency of steam power plant
3.3. Merits and demerits of steam power plants
3.4. Selection of site for steam power plant
3.5. Working of steam power plant
3.6. Constituents of steam power plant and layout
3.7. Steam turbines
3.8. Fuels
3.9. Fuel handling
3.10. Fuel combustion and combustion equipment
3.11. Coal bummers
3.12. Fluidized bed combustion
3.13. Automatic combustion control
3.14. Ash handling
3.15. Dust collection
3.16. Draught system
3.17. Feed water
3.18. Steam power plant controls
3.19. Layout of steam mant main building
3.20. Steam power plant auxiliaries
3.21. Turbo-alternators
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

4. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

4.1. Introduction
4.2. Merits and demerits of nuclear power plants
4.3. Selection of site for nuclear power plants
4.4. Nuclear physics
4.5. Nuclear reaction
4.6. Nuclear fission process
4.7. Nuclear chain reaction
4.8. Nuclear energy
4.9. Nuclear fuels
4.10. Constituent of nuclear power plant and layout
4.11. Power rating of a nuclear power plant
4.12. Nuclear reactor—main parts and their functions
4.13. Reactor control
4.14. Classification of nuclear reactors
4.15. Power reactors in common use
4.16. Safety
4.17. Pollution from nuclear power plants
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers

5. DIESEL ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

5.1. Introduction
5.2. Merits and demerits
5.3. Applications
5.4. Selection of site for diesel electric power plants
5.5. Element of diesel electric power plants
5.6. Supercharging
5.7. Maintenance of records (log sheets)
5.8. Diesel electric plant layout
5.9. Performance and thermal efficiency of diesel electric power plants
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers

6. GAS TURBINE POWER PLANTS

6.1. Introduction
6.2. Merits and demerits
6.3. Applications
6.4. Selection of site for gas turbine power plants
6.5. Fuels for gas turbine
6.6. Elements of simple gas turbine efficiency of a simple gas
6.7. Methods of improving thermal efficiency of a simple gas turbine power plants
6.8. Closed cycle gas turbine power plants
6.9. Operation and control of gas turbine power plants
6.10. Combined steam and gas turbine power plants
6.11. Plant layout
6.12. Comparison of gas turbine power plant with diesel engine and steam power plants
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
6.13.

7. NON-CONVENTIONAL METHODS OF POWER GENERATION

7.1. Introduction
7.2. Magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) power generation
7.3. Thermoelectric power generation
7.4. Thermionic convertor
7.5. Photovoltaic or solar cells
7.6. Fuel cells
7.7. Solar power generation
7.8. Wind power generation
7.9. Tidal power generation
7.10. Geothermal power generation
7.11. Ocean thermal energy
7.12. Biomass
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers

8. SELECTION OF POWER PLANTS

8.1. Introduction
8.2. Comparison of various types of power plants
8.3. Selection and location of power plants
8.4. Size of power plants
8.5. Choice of size and number of generating units
8.6. Various types of reserves in power system
8.7. Efficiency of various power plants
8.8. Economic comparison of alternatives
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers

9. ECONOMIC OPERATION OF POWER PLANTS

9.1. Introduction
9.2. Methods of loading turbo-alternator
9.3. Distribution of load between generating units in a power plants
9.4. Economic load neglecting transmission losses
9.5. Optimum economic operation of power system considering transmission losses
9.6. Economic load distribution between different plants in an integrated system considering transmission losses
9.7. Coordination equations
9.8. Iterative procedure solving coordination equations
9.9. Optimal unit commitment
9.10. Optimal unit commitment using dynamic
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

10. COMBINED OPERATION OF POWER PLANTS

10.1. Introduction
10.2. Merits of combined operation of power plants
10.3. Base load and peak load
10.4. Interconnected of power stations
10.5. Interconnected hydroelectric stations
10.6. Combined operation of run-off river power plant and steam power plant
10.7. Combined operation of storage hydro plant and steam power plant
10.8. Combined operation of wind power units and other power plants
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers

11. ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF ELECTRIC ENERGY GENERATION

11.1. Introduction
11.2. Air pollution
11.3. Aquatic impacts
11.4. Hydroelectric plant impacts
11.5. Social and economic impacts
11.6. Greenhouse effect and global warming
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers

12. COENERATION AND ENERGY CONSERVATION

12.1. Cogeneration
12.2. Advantage of cogeneration
12.3. Cogeneration technologies
12.4. Energy conservation
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers

13. INTERCONNECTED SYSTEM

13.1. Introduction
13.2. Parallel operation of alternators
13.3. Synchronous machines on infinite bus-bars
13.4. Interconnected power station
13.5. Voltage and reactive power control
13.6. Load-frequency control
13.7. Load dispatching
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

14. POWER PLANTS ECONOMICS

14.1. Introduction
14.2. Classification of costs
14.3. Cost analysis of power plants
14.4. Interest and depreciation
14.5. Methods of determination of depreciation
14.6. Economic of power generation
14.7. Significance of load factor and diversity factor
14.8. Capacity scheduling
14.9. Load sharing between base load and peak load plants
14.10. Choice of size and number of generating units
14.11. Load forecasting
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

15. TARIFF AND POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

15.1. Tariff
15.2. Types of tariff
15.3. Spot pricing
15.4. Types of consumer and their tariff
15.5. Power factor
15.6. Disadvantage of low power factor
15.7. Cause of low power factor
15.8. Methods of power factor improvements
15.9. Advantages of power factor improving
15.10. Economic of power factor improvement
15.11. Economical comparison of the two methods of increasing the power supplied
15.12. Choice of equipment
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

Part-II : Transmission and Distribution of electrical power

1. SUPPLY SYSTEMS

1.1. Power system structure
1.2. Electrical supply system
1.3. Typical AC electric power supply system
1.4. Comparison between DC and AC systems for transmission and distribution
1.5. Comparison between overhead and underground systems
1.6. Representation of power systems
1.7. Power system components
1.8. Influence of working voltage on size of feeders and distributions in DC system
1.9. Various system of transmission of electric power
1.10. Comparison of cost conductors-underground systems
1.11. Comparison of cost of conductors-underground systems
1.12. Results of comparison voltage for transmission
1.13. Choice of working voltage for transmission
1.14. Economic size of line conductor-Kelvin’s law
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

2. MECHANICAL DESIGN OF OVERHEAD LINES

2.1. Introduction
2.2. Main components of overhead lines
2.3. Line support
2.4. Conductor materials
2.5. Cross arms
2.6. Pole brackets and clamps
2.7. Guys and stays
2.8. Conductors configuration spacing and clearances
2.9. Span lengths
2.10. Stringing chart sag and tension
2.11. Stringing chart
2.12. Sag template
2.13. Equivalent span
2.14. Vibrations and dampers
2.15. Statutory rules and Indian electricity rules 1956
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

3. OVERHEAD LINE INSULATORS

3.1. Introduction
3.2. Insulator materials
3.3. Factors involved in insulator design
3.4. Types of insulator
3.5. Failure of insulator
3.6. Testing of insulator
3.7. Distribution of potential over a string of suspension insulators
3.8. Methods of improving string efficiency
3.9. Arcing horn and grading ring
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

4. CORONA

4.1. Introduction
4.2. Factors affecting corona
4.3. Triple-harmonic current due to corona
4.4. Advantages and disadvantages of corona
4.5. Dielectric strength of air
4.6. Disruptive critical voltage
4.7. Visual critical voltage
4.8. Corona power loss
4.9. Factors affecting corona loss
4.10. Methods of reducing corona effects
4.11. Voltage limitation of lines
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

5. TRANSMISSION LINE CONSTANTS

5.1. Introduction
5.2. Line resistance
5.3. Skin effect
5.4. Proximity effect
5.5. Line inductance
5.6. Inductance of three-phase overhead lines
5.7. Inductance of three-phase lines with more than one circuit
5.8. Bundled conductors
5.9. Capacitance of a transmission line
5.10. Electric field and potential difference
5.11. Capacitance of a single phase overhead line
5.12. Capacitance of 3-phase overhead lines
5.13. Capacitance of double circuit 3-phase overhead lines
5.14. Capacitance of bundled conductor line
5.15. Effect of earth on capacitance of transmission line
5.16. Transposition of 3-phase lines
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

6. PERFORMANCE OF SHORT AND MEDIUM TRANSMISSION LINES

6.1. Introduction
6.2. Classification of transmission lines
6.3. Regulation and efficiency of a transmission line
6.4. Short transmission lines
6.5. Kappa’s regulation diagram
6.6. Medium transmission lines
6.7. Ferranti effect
6.8. Charging current and line losses in open circuited line
6.9. Effect of capacitance on performance of loaded line
6.10. Generalized circuit constants
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

7. PERFORMANCE OF LINE TRANSMISSION LINES

7.1. Introduction
7.2. Analysis of long transmission lines (rigorous method of solution of long transmission line)
7.3. Evaluation of Constance ABCD
7.4. Surge impedance
7.5. Surge impedance loading
7.6. Transmission line with series impedance at the receiving end
7.7. Transmission line with series impedance at the sending end
7.8. Transmission line with series impedance at both ends
7.9. Transmission line with line with transformers at both ends
7.10. Equivalent T-network of a long transmission line
7.11. Equivalent p-network of a long transmission line
7.12. Constant voltage transmission
7.13. Synchronous phase modifiers or compensators
7.14. Tuned power lines
7.15. Power flow through a transmission line
7.16. Power circle diagram
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

8. UNDERGROUND CABLES

8.1. Introduction
8.2. General construction of cable
8.3. Requirements of cable
8.4. Cable conductors
8.5. Insulating materials for cables
8.6. Classification of cables
8.7. Insulation resistance of a single-core cable
8.8. Capacitance of a single-core cable
8.9. Dielectric stress in a single-core cable
8.10. The most economical diameters of conductor
8.11. Grading of cables
8.12. Capacitance of three-core belted type cables
8.13. Measurement of insulating resistance of cables
8.14. Methods of laying of underground cables
8.15. Heating of cables
8.16. Thermal resistance of cables
8.17. Determination of maximum current carrying capacity of cables
8.18. Selection of cables
8.19. Failure of underground cables
8.20. Operating problems associated with underground cables
8.21. High voltage direct current (HVDC) cables
8.22. Testing of cables
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

9. DC DISTRIBUTION

9.1. Introduction
9.2. Classification of distribution system
9.3. Two-wire DC distributions system
9.4. Types of distributions
9.5. Types of loading
9.6. DC distributions fed at one end
9.7. DC distributions fed at both ends
9.8. Stepped or tapered distributor
9.9. Ring main distributor
9.10. Three-wire DC distribution system
9.11. Methods of obtaining three-wire system
9.12. Boosters
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

10. AC DISTRIBUTION

10.1. Introduction
10.2. AC distribution calculations
10.3. AC distributors with concentrated loads
10.4. AC interconnected system
10.5. 3-phase 4-wire, star-connected unbalanced load circuits
10.6. Consequences of disconnecting natural in a 3-phase 4-wire system
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

11. INSULATION RESISTANCE OF A SYSTEM

11.1. Introduction
11.2. Measurements of insulation resistance of live mains
11.3. Types of cable faults
11.4. Causes of cable faults
11.5. Location of cable faults
11.6. Loop tests
11.7. Fall of potential test
11.8. Test for open-circuit faults
11.9. Measurements of insulation resistance of a cable
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

12. INTERFERENCE OF POWER LINES WITH NEIGBOURING COMMUNICATION LINES

12.1. Introduction
12.2. Electromagnetic effect
12.3. Effect of earth fault currents
12.4. Electrostatic effect
12.5. Transposition of lines
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

13. EXTRA HIGH VOLTAGE (EHV) AC TRANSMISSION

13.1. Introduction
13.2. Problems associated with EHV transmission
13.3. Limitations and design aspects of EHV-AC power transmission system
13.4. Flexible AC transmission system (FACTs)
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers

14. HIGH VOLTAE DIRECT CURRENT (HVDC) TRANSMISSION

14.1. Introduction
14.2. Principle of HVDC system operation
14.3. Advantages of HVDC transmission
14.4. Limitations of HVDC transmission
14.5. Comparison between EHV-AC and HVDC transmission
14.6. Types of DC links
14.7. Ground returns
14.8. Earth electrode and station earth
14.9. HVDC transmission system
14.10. Converter station equipment
14.11. Transient overvoltage and insulating coordination
14.12. Corona in HVDC lines
14.13. Protection aspect
14.14. HVDC circuit breaking
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers

15. CONSTRUCTION TESTING AND COMMISSIONING OF OVERHEAD LINES

15.1. Introduction
15.2. Survey of overhead lines
15.3. Planning of construction work
15.4. Pointing to be considered at the time of erection of overhead lines
15.5. Erection of supports
15.6. Setting of stays
15.7. Fixing of cross arms
15.8. Fixing of insulator
15.9. Conductor erection
15.10. Repairing and jointing of conductors
15.11. Dead end clamps
15.12. Positioning of conductor and attachment to insulators
15.13. Jumpers
15.14. Tee-offs
15.15. Right of way
15.16. Earthing of transmission line
15.17. Guarding of overhead lines
15.18. Testing and commissioning of overhead distributor line
15.19. Maintenance of overhead lines
15.20. Measurements and checking of sag
Exercise
OBJECTIVE TYPES QUESTIONS…………………………..

Part – III : switchgear and protection

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1. General characteristic of electrical equipment
1.2. Faults in power system
1.3. Short-circuit currents
1.4. Harmful effect of short-circuit faults on power system
1.5. Source of fault power
1.6. Necessity for protection system
1.7. Fault cleaning process
1.8. Basic requirement of protection system
1.9. Protection zones
1.10. Types of protection
1.11. Instrument transformers
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers

2. PRESENTATION OF POWER SYSTEM COMPONENTS

2.1. Introduction
2.2. Power system network
2.3. Representation of power system components
2.4. Representation of power systems
2.5. Percentage of power systems
2.6. Per unit (PU) method of representing quantities
2.7. Per unit impedance diagram of a system
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

3. SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS

3.1. Introduction
3.2. The phase operator “a”
3.3. Evaluation of the components
3.4. Some properties of 3-phase circuits with regard to symmetrical components of current and voltages
3.5. Three-phase power in terms of symmetrical components
3.6. Phase-shift in star-delta transformers
3.7. Sequence impedances of transmission lines
3.8. Physical significance of sequence components
3.9. Sequence impedance and sequence networks
3.10. Sequence impedance of power system elements
3.11. Formation of sequence networks of power systems
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

4. SYMMETRICAL FAULT ANALYSIS

4.1. Introduction
4.2. Switching operation in an R-L series circuit
4.3. 3-phase sudden short circuit of an alternator (on No load)
4.4. Limitation to fault current
4.5. Analysis of symmetrical faults in power system networks
4.6. Consideration of prefault load current
4.7. Current limiting reactors
4.8. Location of reactors
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

5. UNSYMMETRICAL FAULT ANALYSIS

5.1. Introduction
5.2. Faults analysis of unloaded synchronous generator
5.3. Faults in power system
5.4. Series of open conductor faults
5.5. Computer method for short-circuit calculations
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

6. FUSES

6.1. Introduction
6.2. Circuit breaking
6.3. Are phenomena
6.4. Types of fuse
6.5. Low voltage fuses
6.6. Drop-out fuse
6.7. Striker fuse
6.8. Switch fuse
6.9. High voltage HRC fuses
6.10. Expulsion type HV fuse
6.11. Selection of fuse
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers

7. CIRCUIT BREAKING

7.1. Introduction
7.2. Circuit breaking
7.3. Arc phenomena
7.4. Arc extinction
7.5. Important terms associated with circuit breaking
7.6. Restricting voltage transient
7.7. Duties of circuits
7.8. Resistance switching
7.9. Circuits breaker ratings
7.10. Testing of circuits breakers
7.11. Testing station and equipment
7.12. Testing procedure
7.13. Direct testing
7.14. Indirect testing
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

8. CIRCUIT BREAKING

8.1. Introduction
8.2. Classification of circuit breaking
8.3. Oil circuit breaker
8.4. Air break circuit breakers
8.5. Air blast circuits breakers
8.6. Sulphur hexafluoride (SF) circuit breaker
8.7. Vacumm circuit breaker
8.8. Comparison between fuse and circuit breaker
8.9. HVDC circuits breakers
8.10. Autoreclosure
8.11. Breaker operating mechanisms
8.12. Types of circuit breaker mounting and enclosure
8.13. Comparative merits and demerits of different types of conventional circuit breakers
8.14. Comparison of different types of circuit breakers
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers

9. PROTECTIVE RELAYS

9.1. Introduction
9.2. Basic terminology
9.3. Operating principle of protective relays
9.4. Classification of relays
9.5. Electromagnetic attraction relays
9.6. Electromagnetic induction relays
9.7. Permanent magnet moving coil relay
9.8. Thermal relays
9.9. Buchholz relay
9.10. Overcurrent relays
9.11. Induction type directional power relay
9.12. Induction type directional overcurrent and earth fault relay
9.13. Universal relay torque equation
9.14. Distance protection
9.15. Impedance type distance relay
9.16. Reactance type distance relay
9.17. Mho type distance relay
9.18. Classification of distance relays
9.19. Differential protection
9.20. Translay relay
9.21. Negative phase sequence or phase unbalance relay
9.22. Relay design consideration
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

10. STATIC RELAYS

10.1. Introduction
10.2. Classification of static relays
10.3. Output devices
10.4. Comparators
10.5. Amplitude comparators
10.6. Phase comparator
10.7. Summation transformers
10.8. Overcurrent relays
10.9. Directional static overcurrent relays
10.10. Static differential relays
10.11. Static distance relays
10.12. Distance relay characteristics
10.13. Multi-input comparators
10.14. Microprocessor based digital relays
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers

11. PROTECTION OF AC GENERATORS AND MOTORS

11.1. Introduction
11.2. Generator faults
11.3. Stator protection
11.4. Overload or overcurrent protection
11.5. Overvoltage protection
11.6. Overspeed protection
11.7. Protection against motoring
11.8. Rotor fault protection
11.9. Negative sequence protection of generators against unbalanced loads
11.10. Protection against vibration
11.11. Bearing overheating protection
11.12. External fault backup protection
11.13. Direct connected generator protection
11.14. Types of protection for generators and their settings
11.15. Protection of AC motors
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

12. TRANSFORMER PROTECTION

12.1. Introduction
12.2. Buchholz protection
12.3. Core-balance leakage protection
12.4. Combined leakage and overload protection
12.5. Differential protection for power transformers
12.6. Biased differential protection
12.7. Harmonic restraint relay
12.8. Self balance protection system
12.9. Differential magnetic balance protection system
12.10. Self stabilizing magnetic balance protection system
12.11. Restricted earth fault protection
12.12. Frame leakage protection
12.13. Generator-transformer unit protection
12.14. Types of protection for power transformers
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

13. BUS-BAR PROTECTION

13.1. Introduction
13.2. Bus-bar arrangements
13.3. Bus zone faults
13.4. Backup protection for bus-bars
13.5. Frame leakage or fault-bus protection
13.6. Differential overcurrent protection
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers

14. PROTECTION OF FEEDERS AND TRANSMISSION LINES

14.1. Introduction
14.2. Overload protection
14.3. Overcurrent and earth fault protection
14.4. Time graded protection
14.5. Current graded protection
14.6. Differential pilot wire protection
14.7. Current balance differential protection
14.8. Merz price voltage balance system
14.9. Translay protection system
14.10. Split-conductor protection system
14.11. Carrier current protection
14.12. Microwave channel
14.13. Distance or impedance protection
14.14. Carrier aided distance protection
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers

15. PROTECTION AGAINST OVERVOLTAGES DUE TO LIGHTING

15.1. Introduction
15.2. Internal causes of overvoltages
15.3. Mechanism of lighting
15.4. Waveshape of lighting stroke
15.5. Lighting strokes
15.6. Overvoltage due to lighting
15.7. Line design based on direct lighting strokes
15.8. Protection against lighting
15.9. Protection of power stations and substance from direct lighting strokes
15.10. Protection of overhead transmission lines
15.11. Protection of electrical equipment from travelling waves
15.12. Rod gap arrester
15.13. Sphere gap arrester
15.14. Horn gap arrester
15.15. Multiple gap arrester
15.16. Impulse protective gap
15.17. Electrolytic arresters
15.18. Expulsion type lighting arrester
15.19. Value type lighting arresters
15.20. Thyrite lighting arrester
15.21. Autovalue arrester
15.22. Oxide film arrester
15.23. Metal oxide lighting arresters
15.24. Surge arrester specifications and terms
15.25. Arrester rating and location and effect of cables
15.26. Tests on lighting arresters
15.27. Surge capacitor, surge reactor and surge absorbers
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers

16. TRAVELING WAVES

16.1. Introduction
16.2. Surge impedance and velocity of propagation
16.3. Specifications of traveling waves
16.4. Reflection and refraction of waves
16.5. Typical cases of line terminations
16.6. Equivalent circuit for traveling waves studies
16.7. Bifurcated line
16.8. Reactive termination
16.9. Successive reflections, bewely lattic or zig-zag diagram
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

17. INSULATION CO-ORDINATION

17.1. Introduction
17.2. Co-ordination of system insulation
17.3. Basic approach to insulating co-ordination in power system
17.4. Selection of arrester rating
17.5. Insulation co-ordination between liner and subtraction
17.6. Choice of insulation levels for subtraction equipments
Exercise

18. POWER SYSTEM EARTHING

18.1. Introduction
18.2. Definitions
18.3. Effects of electric currents in human body
18.4. Soil resistivity
18.5. Grounding resistance
18.6. Potential gradient
18.7. Earthing mat
18.8. Touch and step potential
18.9. Size of the earthing conductor
18.10. Measurements of earth resistance
18.11. Measurement of soil resistivity
18.12. Impulse behavior of grounding system
18.13. Introduction of neutral earthing
18.14. Isolated neutral or underground system
18.15. Grounded neutral system
18.16. Effectively grounded system
18.17. Solid or effective grounding
18.18. Resistance grounding
18.19. Resistance grounding
18.20. Arc suppression coil grounding (or personate grounding )
18.21. Voltage transformer grounding
18.22. Grounding transformer
18.23. Harmonic suppression
18.24. Neutral grounding practice
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

19. VOLTAGE CONTROL

19.1. Introduction
19.2. Excitation systems
19.3. Excitation control
19.4. Automatic voltage regulator
19.5. Tap changing regulators
19.6. Booster transformer
19.7. Induction voltage regulators
19.8. Series capacitors
19.9. Shunt reactors
19.10. Shunt capacitors
19.11. Shunt compensation—static VAR systems (SVS)
19.12. Synchronous condensers
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers

20. SUBSTRACTIONS

20.1. Introduction
20.2. Classification of substations
20.3. Indore substance
20.4. Outdoor substance
20.5. Selection and location of site for a substation
20.6. Main electric connections
20.7. Graphical symbols for various types of apparatus and circuit elements on substation main connection diagram
20.8. Key diagram of typical substations
20.9. Equipment for substations and switchgear installations
20.10. Lead-acid batteries
20.11. Substation auxiliaries supply
20.12. Substation earthing
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers

21. POWER SYSTEM STABILITY

21.1. Introduction
21.2. Maximum steady state power
21.3. Power angle diagram
21.4. Steady state stability
21.5. Transient stability
21.6. Equal area criterion
21.7. Critical clearing angle
21.8. Two-machine system
21.9. Numerical solution of swing equation (point by point solution)
21.10. Digital solution of swing equation
21.11. Factors affecting transient stability and methods of its improvement
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

22. POWER FLOW STUDIES

22.1. Introduction
22.2. Bus classification
22.3. Bus admittance matrix
22.4. Formatting of Y- using step by step method
22.5. Formatting of Y – using singular transformers
22.6. Representation of transformers
22.7. Formulation of load flow equations and methods of solution
22.8. Iterative computation of nonlinear algebraic equations Gauss and gauss-seidle iterative technique
22.9. Gauss-seidle method for power flow studies
22.10. Newton-raphson method
22.11. Comparison between G-S and N-R methods of power flow solution
22.12. Sparsity
22.13. Fast decoupled power flow method
22.14. Importance and objectives of power flow studies
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS

VOLUME – II : Utilization of electric Power and Electric Traction

SECTION-A : ELECTRIC DRIVES AND INDUSTRIAL APPLIATIONS

1. ELECTRIC DRIVES

1.1. Introduction
1.2. Factors governing selection of electric motors
1.3. Nature of electric supply
1.4. Types of drives
1.5. Types of loads
1.6. Single quadrant operation of electric motors
1.7. Four quadrant operation of electric motors
1.8. Torque-speed and speed-torque characteristic
1.9. Selection of electric drives
1.10. Motor speed-torque characteristic
1.11. Joint speed-torque characteristic of an electric motor and a driven unit
1.12. Dynamics of motor-load combination
1.13. Referred load torque and moments of inertia
1.14. Referred force and masses having translational motion to a rotating shaft
1.15. Referring torques and translating masses when speed is variable
1.16. Operating or running characteristic of electric motors
1.17. Starting of electric motors
1.18. Speed control of electric motors
1.19. Electric braking
1.20. Electric braking with DC motors
1.21. Electric braking of polyphase induction motors
1.22. Electric braking of synchronous motors
1.23. Dynamic of enclosures
1.24. Types of enclosure
1.25. Bearings
1.26. Transmission of drive
1.27. Choice of drive
1.28. Noise
1.29. Insulating materials
1.30. Temperature rise in electric machines
1.31. Duty cycles
1.32. Rating of machines
1.33. Choice of rating of motors
1.34. Methods of ventilation and cooling of machines
1.35. Frame size
1.36. Load equalization
1.37. Appearance
1.38. Cost
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

2. CONTROL DEVICES FOR INDUSTRIAL MOTORS

2.1. Introduction
2.2. Automatic regulating equipment
2.3. Solid state devices
2.4. Pilot devices and accessories
2.5. Contactors
2.6. Electromagnetic relays
2.7. Protective devices and interlocks
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers

3. THYRISTOR CONTROL OF ELECTRIC MOTORS

3.1. Introduction
3.2. General configuration of a motor drive
3.3. Classification of power convertor
3.4. Matching power electronic convertor and motor
3.5. DC motor control through convertors
3.6. Thyristor control of separately excited DC motor drive
3.7. Chopper control of DC motors
3.8. Comparison of convertor fed and chopper fed DC drives
3.9. Special features of thyrister drive motors
3.10. Speed control of DC motor using feedback loops
3.11. Electric braking of rectifier controlled separately excited DC motor
3.12. Thyristor control of DC series motors
3.13. Thyristor control of three phase induction motors
3.14. Thyristor control of a 3-phase synchronous motor
3.15. Speed control of single phase induction motor using triac (fan regulator)
3.16. Brushless (or communicator less ) DC motor
3.17. Switched reluctance motor
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

4. MOTORS FOR PARTICULAR SERVICES

4.1. Introduction
4.2. Types of motors used in industrial drives
4.3. Applications of electric drive
Exercises

SECTION- B : ELECTRIC POWER UTILAIZATION

5. ELECTRIC HEATING

5.1. Introduction
5.2. Modes of transfer of heat
5.3. Classification of electric heating methods
5.4. Resistance heating
5.5. Arc furnaces
5.6. Induction heating
5.7. High frequency eddy current heating
5.8. High frequency power supply source
5.9. Dielectric heating
5.10. Choice of frequency
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

6. ELECTRIC WELDING

6.1. Introduction
6.2. Resistance welding
6.3. Electric arc welding
6.4. Ultrasonic welding
6.5. Electron beam welding
6.6. Laser beam welding
6.7. Requirements of good weld
6.8. Preparation of work
6.9. Electrodes
6.10. Power supply for resistance welding
6.11. Machines for resistance welding
6.12. Electronic control in resistance welding
6.13. Power supply for arc welding
6.14. Electric welding equipment
6.15. Arc welding with DC and AC
6.16. Comparison between resistance and arc welding
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers

7. ILLUMINATION ENGINEERING

7.1. Introduction
7.2. Terms used in illumination
7.3. Laws of illumination
7.4. Polar curves
7.5. Photometry
7.6. Integrating sphere
7.7. Measurement of illumination
7.8. Source of light
7.9. Arc lamps
7.10. Incandescent lamps
7.11. Gaseous discharge lamps
7.12. Comparison between tungsten filament lamps and fluorescent tubes
7.13. Basic principles of light control
7.14. Types of lighting schemes
7.15. Design of lighting schemes
7.16. Factory lighting
7.17. Methods of lighting calculations
7.18. Street lighting
7.19. Floodlighting
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

8. ELECTROLYTIC PROCESSES

8.1. Introduction
8.2. Electrolysis—basic principle
8.3. Faraday’s laws of electro deposition
8.4. Calculation of current required for depositing given amount of metal
8.5. Current efficiency
8.6. Voltage
8.7. Energy efficiency
8.8. Extraction of metals
8.9. Refining of metals
8.10. Production of chemicals
8.11. Electrodepositing
8.12. Electroplating
8.13. Deposition of alloys
8.14. Electroforming
8.15. Electrotyping
8.16. Electrofacing
8.17. Electrometallisation
8.18. Electrodepositing of rubber
8.19. Anodizing
8.20. Electropolishing
8.21. Power supply for electrolytic process
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

9. REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING

9.1. Introduction
9.2. Terminology
9.3. Refrigeration cycle
9.4. Refrigeration system
9.5. Compound or multi-stage vapour compression refrigeration system
9.6. Refrigerants
9.7. Domestic refrigerator
9.8. Water cooler
9.9. Desert cooler
9.10. Air conditioning
9.11. Comfort air conditioning
9.12. Industrial air conditioning
9.13. Effective temperature
9.14. Summer air conditioning system
9.15. Winter air conditioning system
9.16. Year-round air conditioning system
9.17. Types of air conditioning system
9.18. Room air conditioners
9.19. Central air conditioning system
9.20. Heating of buildings
9.21. Calculation of rating of electrical equipment
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

SECTION- C : ELECTRIC TRACTION

10. TRACTION SYSTEM

10.1. Introduction
10.2. Different system of traction
10.3. System of electric traction
10.4. System of track electrification
10.5. Comparison between DC and AC system of railway electrification from the point of view of main line and suburban line railway services
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers

11. TRAIN MOVEMENT AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION

11.1. Introduction
11.2. Typical sped-time curves
11.3. Crest speed, average speed and schedule speed
11.4. Factor affecting schedule speed
11.5. Simplified speed-time curves
11.6. Mechanics of train movement
11.7. Tractive effort for propulsion
11.8. Power output from the driving axles
11.9. Energy output from driving axles
11.10. Determination of specific energy output using simplified speed-time curve
11.11. Factors affecting specific energy consumption of an electric train operating on a given schedule speed
11.12. Dead weight accelerating weight and adhesive weight
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

12. ELECTRIC TRACTION MOTORS

12.1. General features of traction motors
12.2. Operating characteristics of DC motors
12.3. DC series motor
12.4. DC shunt motor
12.5. AC series motor
12.6. Three phase induction motor
12.7. Linear induction motor
12.8. Rating and ventilation
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

13. CONTROL OF TRACTION MOTORS

13.1. Introduction
13.2. Starting and speed control of DC traction motors
13.3. Plain rheostatic stSarting (notching)
13.4. Series-parallel starting
13.5. Transition methods
13.6. Drum controller
13.7. Contactor type controller
13.8. Buck and boost method of speed control
13.9. Metadyne control
13.10. Thyristor control of traction motors
13.11. Speed control and starting of single-phase series motors
13.12. Starting and speed control of 3-phase induction motors
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

14. BRAKING; MECHANICAL CONSIDERATION AND CONTROL EQUIPMENT

14.1. Braking
14.2. Mechanical regenerative braking
14.3. Mechanical braking
14.4. Hydraulic braking
14.5. Magnetic track brakes
14.6. Electromechanical drum brakes
14.7. Eddy current brakes
14.8. Mechanical considerations
14.9. Control equipment
14.10. Multiple unit control
14.11. Auxiliary equipment
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
Problems

15. POWER SUPPLY FOR ELECTRIC TRACTION

15.1. Introduction
15.2. Current collection system
15.3. Current collector for overhead system
15.4. Overhead construction for tramways and trolley buses and railways
15.5. Sag and tension calculation for a trolley wire
15.6. DC track electrification
15.7. Low frequency single phase system
15.8. AC track electrification
15.9. Power supply arrangement for AC track electrification
15.10. Block diagram of an AC electric locomotive
15.11. Major substation equipment
15.12. Remote control centre
15.13. Signaling
15.14. Overhead equipment
15.15. Interference in telecommunication circuits
15.16. Booster transformer
15.17. Negative booster
15.18. Protective devices
Exercises
Short answer type question with answers
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS………….
INDEX………..

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