The tractive force in a locomotive with two cylinders is given by (where c = Fraction of reciprocating parts per cylinder, m = Mass of reciprocating parts, ω = Angular speed of crank, r = Radius of crank, and θ = Angle of inclination of crank to the line of stroke)

- Am.ω².r cosθ
- Bc.m.ω².r sinθ
- C(1 - c).m.ω².r (cosθ - sinθ)
- Dm.ω².r (cosθ - sinθ)

(1 - c).m.ω².r (cosθ - sinθ)

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For an involute gear, the ratio of base circle radius and pitch circle radius is equal to

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